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Heat stroke Definition: Symptoms, causes, complications, prevention and First Aid

Heat stroke Definition: Symptoms, causes, complications, prevention and First Aid

 Heatstroke Definition

Heatstroke is a condition caused by your body temperature, usually as a result of prolonged exposure or strenuous activities at high temperatures. This is the most important form of heat injury, heatstroke, can occur when your body temperature rises to 104 F (40 C) or higher. The condition is most common during the summer season.

Heatstroke requires immediate medical attention. Untreated heatstroke can damage your brain, heart, kidneys, and muscles. Damage becomes worse if treatment is delayed, increasing the risk of serious complications or death. it is also known as sunstroke.

Symptoms of Heatstroke

  • High body temperature.

  • A changed attitude or behavior.

  • Changing sweat. 

  • Nausea and vomiting.

  • Flushed skin.

  • Rapid Breathing. 

  • Dizziness

  • Seizures

  • Unconsciousness
  Causes of Heatstroke

 Exposure to Heat

called a non-exertional (classic) heatstroke, exposure to heat leads to an increase in body temperature. This type of heatstroke usually occurs after exposure to hot, humid weather, especially over a long time. It is more common in the elderly and people with chronic illnesses.

Strenuous Activity

Heatstroke is caused by a rise in body temperature brought on by excessive body heat activity. Anyone who works out or works in hot weather can get exertional heatstroke, but it is more possible if you are not used to high temperatures.

  • wearing excess Clothing 

  • Drinking alcohol

Risk Factors

some important factors that can increase the risk of getting heatstroke


Your ability to withstand extreme heat depends on the strength of your nervous system. For the very young, the central nervous system is not yet fully developed, and for adults over the age of 65, the central nervous system begins to deteriorate, making it impossible for your body to cope with changes in body temperature. Both age groups often have difficulty staying hydrated, which increases the risk.

Hard work in hot weather

Military physical training and participation in sports, such as football or long-distance running events, where the heat is one of the conditions that can lead to heatstroke stroke.

Sudden exposure to hot weather.

 You may be more prone to heat-related illnesses if you are exposed to sudden warmings, such as in the early summer months or traveling to a tropical climate.

Reduce work to at least a few days to adapt to change. However, you may still have an increased risk of developing a fever until you are exposed to a few weeks of high fever.

Lack of  Air conditioning. 

Fans can make you feel better, but in hot weather, cool air is the most effective way to cool down and reduce moisture.

Certain medications. 

Some medicines affect your body's ability to stay hydrated and respond to heat. Be careful in hot weather when taking vasoconstrictors, control your blood pressure by blocking adrenaline (beta-blockers), detoxify your body with sodium and diuretics, or reduce psychological symptoms (antidepressants or anti-depressants).

Certain health conditions. 

Certain chronic illnesses, such as heart or lung disease, can increase the risk of heatstroke attacks. So it can be fat, sit down, and have a history of previous heatstroke.

Heatstroke Complications

Heatstroke can lead to many problems, depending on how high the temperature is. Serious problems include:

Injury to an important organ.

 In addition to the immediate response to low body temperature, heatstroke can cause your brain or other vital organs to become inflamed, with potentially permanent damage.


 Without prompt and adequate treatment, heatstroke can be fatal or deadly

Prevention from Heatstroke

Heatstroke is preventable. Take these steps to prevent heatstroke during the hot season:

Wear loose-fitting, lightweight clothing 

Protect from the sun.

 Sunburn affects your body's ability to cool down, so protect yourself from the outside with a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses and use a wide sunscreen with at least 15 SPF. Use sunscreen freely, and apply every two hours - or more often if you are swimming or sweating.

Drink plenty of fluids or water.

 Staying hydrated will help your body to sweat and maintain a normal body temperature.

Take additional precautions with certain medications.

 Look for heat-related problems when taking medications that can affect your body's ability to stay hydrated and eliminate heat.

Never leave anyone in a parked car.

 This is a common cause of heat-related death in children. When exposed to the sun, the temperature in your car may rise by 20 degrees F (over 6.7 C) in 10 minutes.

It is not safe to leave a person standing in a car when it is hot or humid, even if the windows are open or the car is in the shade. If your car is parked, keep it locked so that the child cannot get inside.

Make it easy during the hottest days.

 If you can't avoid strenuous work in the heat, drink plenty of fluids and relax regularly in a cool place. Try to schedule some exercise or physical activity for cool days, such as morning or evening.

Get used to it. 

Reduce time spent working or exercising in the heat until you are ready. People unfamiliar with hot climates are particularly susceptible to heat-related illnesses. It can take a few weeks for your body to adjust to the hot weather.

Be careful if you are in danger.

 If you are taking medication or have a condition that increases the risk of heat-related problems, avoid heat and act immediately if you notice signs of overheating. If you are taking part in a strenuous or hot sports event, make sure that medical supplies are available in case of an emergency.

First Aid For Heat Stroke Patients

If you suspect that someone has a heatstroke, immediately call the helpline or take that person to the hospital. Any delay in seeking medical help can be fatal.

While you wait for paramedics to arrive, start first aid. Move the person to a ventilated area - or at least a cool, shady place - and remove any unnecessary clothing.

If possible, take a person's body temperature and start first aid to cool it to 101 to 102 degrees Fahrenheit. (If there are no thermometers, do not hesitate to start first aid.)

Try some  cooling tips:

Apply ice packs to the armpits, buttocks, neck, and back. Because these areas are rich in blood vessels near the skin, cooling can lower body temperature.

Immerse the patient in a shower or bath of cool water.

If a person is young and modest and suffers from heatstroke during strenuous exercise. you can use an ice bath to help cool the body.

Do not use ice on older patients, young children, patients with a chronic illness, or anyone who has had a heatstroke that has occurred without vigorous exercise. Doing so could be dangerous.

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