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Typhoid fever: causes, symptoms and prevention

Typhoid fever


Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease caused by "Salmonella Typhi". Typhoid fever is a major threat in some developed countries. In any case, the disease makes a person restless and his normal activities stop. Apart from the patient, all the family members are also affected. Seasonal fever is not a big deal. Man recovers quickly, but typhoid fever is a deadly disease and a contagious disease.

Mortality Rate of Typhoid fever

Globally, there are 21 million typhoid cases and 220,000 deaths annually. Only a healthy and fit person can do all his work well.

Causes of Typhoid Fever

  • The disease is most common in the rainy, summer, and autumn seasons. 
  • In addition, dirty water also causes typhoid.
  • The germs can be passed from a typhoid patient to another healthy person and they can also get a fever.
  • Eating  spoiled  or low-quality items  in the market also increases the risk of contracting the disease.
Typhoid fever symptoms

  • A person with typhoid fever has a body temperature of 103 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • headaches
  • loss of appetite, body aches
  • red spots on the skin
  • nausea
  • constipation or diarrhea,
  • loss of appetite and pink rashes on the body 
  • The symptoms of typhoid fever are similar to other common gastrointestinal diseases. Dysentery, sweating, insomnia, dry cough, abdominal pain, constipation, dirty and white tongue, nausea, and weakness are the main symptoms.
Diagnosis and duration of Typhoid fever

Normal seasonal fever can be cured in two to four days, but if the fever lasts for a long time, it should be tested immediately so that it can be diagnosed in time and treated.  if it is late, the patient's life is in danger. This contagious disease can last for weeks and months. Even if the patient recovers, the germs are still present, so patients who have had a typhoid attack should avoid eating solid foods.

Route of Transmission

Typhoid fever is spread from person to person through contaminated food and water. route of transmission is  the oral route  i.e contaminated wastes can enter the water supply or food supply, after which they can be used and others can be affected. Typhoid is only present in humans. Typhoid fever is most common in densely populated areas where the water supply is contaminated.

Prevention of Typhoid fever

  • Always eat fresh and clean food. 
  • Don't use open-air dishes and contaminated beverages.
  • Always drink boiled water.
  • Always wash and use vegetables and fruits thoroughly. 
  • The patient should be kept in a comfortable room. If typhoid germs are found in the kitchens of a hotel, then everyone who comes to eat at this hotel can get typhoid.
Typhoid Vaccine 

Typhoid vaccine  is available globally. but now first time also available in Pakistan 

Conclusion

Improved water purification 'Proper storage of food can prevent the spread of typhoid. According to the WHO, typhoid vaccination programs should be implemented along with other efforts for health, education, water purification, and quality disease prevention. Typhoid fever is a major public health problem, especially in children

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